Chapter 1Order Out of Theoretical Chaos?
Causes of Successful Versus Unsuccessful Outcomes
Leaders of governments, major business corporations, and other large organizations typically make policy decisions with the expectation that the outcomes will be sufficiently successful to achieve fairly well the objectives they have in mind. But all too often they are bitterly disappointed. Obviously, several different causes contribute to unsuccessful outcomes.
Unforeseeable obstacles to effective implementation and uncontrollable events, such as countermoves by adversaries or competitors, can drastically interfere to...