The Eight Forces
The eight forces are a more detailed explication of the forces of nature and the universe. They are represented by the symbol of the pakua and the eight trigrams. Beyond the eight visible forces of the universe--Li (fire) and Kan (water), Chien (heaven) and Kun (earth), Tui (lake) and Ken (mountain), Sun (wind) and Chen (thunder)--the eight forces are symbolized by the eight immortals.
The pakua originates in the pattern of the turtle or tortoise shell used in prehistoric shamanic divination. From this shape evolved the drum and circle walking symbolizing the change of seasons, from the...